Start Peru

 More LA stuff

Andes DX
News and info
on Andean radio:

LA DX Guide
How to catch
weak Latins

LA logs
list on LA activity

Veri signers
Email those
LA radio stations

Moore details
on Latin radio

Peru CD
Get your Latin music
directly from Peru

  Peru  DX news
Peru map

Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean between Chile and Ecuador

Map references: South America, Standard Time Zones of the World

total area 1,285,220 sq km
land area 1.28 million sq km
comparative area slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries: total 6,940 km, Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea 200 nm

International disputes: three sections of the boundary with Ecuador are in dispute

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash

Land use:
arable land 3%
permanent crops 0%
meadows and pastures 21%
forest and woodland 55%
other 21%

Irrigated land: 12,500 sq km (1989 est.)

current issues deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima
natural hazards subject to earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, mild volcanic activity
international agreements party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Tropical Timber

Note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia


Population: 23,650,671 (July 1994 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.86% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 25.55 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 54.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population 65.62 years
male 63.44 years
female 67.9 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.11 children born/woman (1994 est.)

noun Peruvian(s)
adjective Peruvian

Ethnic divisions: Indian 45%, mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population 85%
male 92%
female 29%

Labor force: 8 million (1992)
by occupation government and other services 44%, agriculture 37%, industry 19% (1988 est.)


conventional long form Republic of Peru
conventional short form Peru
local long form Republica del Peru
local short form Peru

Digraph: PE

Type: republic

Capital: Lima

Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note the 1979 Constitution and legislation enacted from 1987 to 1990 mandate the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) intended to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 existing departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of Lima. Because of inadequate funding from the central government and organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities. The 1993 Constitution maintains the regionalization process with some modifications that will limit the powers of the regional governments. The new constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments.

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution: 31 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990); election last held on 10 June 1990 (next to be held NA April 1995); results - Alberto FUJIMORI 56.53%, Mario VARGAS Llosa 33.92%, other 9.55%
cabinet Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
note Prime Minister Efrain GOLDENBERG Schreiber (since February 1994) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
Democratic Constituent Congress (CCD) elections last held 25 November 1992 (next to be held April 1995); seats - (80 total) New Majority/Change 90 44, Popular Christian Party 8, Independent Moralization Front 7, Renewal 6, Movement of the Democratic Left 4, Democratic Coordinator 4, others 7; note - several major parties (American Popular Revolutionary Alliance, Popular Action) did not participate; with the next election the congress will be expanded to 100 seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Political parties and leaders:
note Peru's political party system has become fragmented in recent years with independent movements proliferating; key parties are listed New Majority/Change 90 (Cambio 90), Alberto FUJIMORI; Popular Christian Party (PPC), Luis BEDOYA Reyes; Popular Action Party (AP), Raul DIEZ CANSECO; American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), Armando VILLANUEVA del CAMPO; Independent Moralizing Front (FIM), Fernando OLIVERA Vega; National Renewal, Rafael REY Rey; Democratic Coordinator, Jose BARBA Caballero; Democratic Left Movement, Henry PEASE; Solidarity and Democracy (SODE), Manuel MOREYRA; National Front of Workers and Peasants (FRENATRACA), Roger CACARES

Other political or pressure groups: leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path, Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned); Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, Nestor SERPA and Victor POLAY (imprisoned)


Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath


Overview: The Peruvian economy is becoming increasingly market oriented, with major privatizations scheduled for 1994 in the mining and telecommunications industries. In the 1980s the economy suffered from hyperinflation, declining per capita output, and mounting external debt. Peru was shut off from IMF and World Bank support in the mid-1980s because of its huge debt arrears. An austerity program implemented shortly after the FUJIMORI government took office in July 1990 contributed to a third consecutive yearly contraction of economic activity, but the slide halted late that year, and output rose 2.4% in 1991. After a burst of inflation as the austerity program eliminated government price subsidies, monthly price increases eased to the single-digit level and by December 1991 dropped to the lowest increase since mid-1987. Lima obtained a financial rescue package from multilateral lenders in September 1991, although it faced $14 billion in arrears on its external debt. By working with the IMF and World Bank on new financial conditions and arrangements, the government succeeded in ending its arrears by March 1993. In 1992, GDP fell by 2.8%, in part because a warmer-than-usual El Nino current resulted in a 30% drop in the fish catch. In 1993 the economy rebounded as strong foreign investment helped push growth to 6%.

National product: GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $70 billion (1993 est.)

National product real growth rate: 6% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $3,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 39% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15%; underemployment 70% (1992 est.)

revenues $2 billion
expenditures $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $300 million (1992 est.)

Exports: $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities copper, zinc, fishmeal, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, refined silver, coffee, cotton
partners US 25%, Japan 9%, Italy, Germany

Imports: $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners US 30%, Colombia, Argentina, Japan, Germany, Brazil

External debt: $22 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -5% (1992 est.); accounts for 32% of GDP, including petroleum

capacity 5,042,000 kW
production 17.434 billion kWh
consumption per capita 760 kWh (1992)

Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication

Agriculture: accounts for 13% of GDP, about 35% of labor force; commercial crops - coffee, cotton, sugarcane; other crops - rice, wheat, potatoes, plantains, coca; animal products - poultry, red meats, dairy, wool; not self-sufficient in grain or vegetable oil; fish catch of 6.9 million metric tons (1990)

Illicit drugs: world's largest coca leaf producer with about 108,800 hectares under cultivation in 1993; source of supply for most of the world's coca paste and cocaine base; at least 85% of coca cultivation is for illicit production; most of cocaine base is shipped to Colombian drug dealers for processing into cocaine for the international drug market

Economic aid:
recipient US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.3 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $577 million

Currency: 1 nuevo sol (S/.) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: nuevo sol (S/.) per US$1 - 2.180 (January 1994), 1.988 (1993), 1.245 (1992), 0.772 (1991), 0.187 (1990), 0.0027 (1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 1,801 km total; 1,501 km 1.435-meter gauge, 300 km 0.914-meter gauge

total 69,942 km
paved 7,459 km
unpaved improved earth 13,538 km; unimproved earth 48,945 km

Inland waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km Lago Titicaca

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km

Ports: Callao, Ilo, Iquitos, Matarani, Talara

Merchant marine: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 142,425 GRT/229,746 DWT, bulk 3, cargo 10, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
note in addition, 6 naval tankers and 1 naval cargo are sometimes used commercially

total 252
usable 222
with permanent-surface runways 37
with runways over 3,659 m 2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m 24
with runways 1,220-2,439 m 54

Telecommunications: fairly adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave system; 544,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 273 AM, no FM, 140 TV, 144 shortwave; satellite earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 12 domestic

Defense Forces

Branches: Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru), National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 6,199,785; fit for military service 4,188,706; reach military age (20) annually 246,427 (1994 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $500 million, about 2% of GDP (1991)

Front page
Just in!
Latin DX
Andes DX
Medium wave
Solar report
DX lab

Web Archive
Mail Archive

Search all HCDX
mail since 1995

 About us
HCDX mail list
Our team
Our partners
Write to us

 Our partners


Herman's DX
Nordic DX

QSL info web

SW Bulletin
SWR radio
Tampere DX

How to become
a HCDX partner